Laureates

Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K and T2K Collaboration

KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization

2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics

For the fundamental discovery and exploration of neutrino oscillations, revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the Standard Model of particle physics.

The Science

Sixty-five billion neutrinos pass through every square centimeter of your body every second. But since they are invisible and pass right through the Earth with scarcely any impacts, they are very hard to detect and study. Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K/T2K experiments in Japan confirmed that neutrinos beamed from a particle accelerator “oscillate”, or spontaneously transform into different types. This has major implications for our understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics and perhaps the origin of the Universe.

Comments

I thank my K2K and T2K collaborators for their exceptional work and dedication to the experiments. I thank the pioneering Japanese high-energy physicists for their hard efforts to realize a high-energy proton accelerator in 1979, and the KEK accelerator group for their innovative efforts to improve it two decades later. The successful operation of the new J-PARC accelerator was made possible by the innovations and dedication of my colleagues at J-PARC. I thank the late Yoji Totsuka, who made every possible effort to support both K2K and T2K from their very beginnings, as spokesperson of Super Kamiokande and later as director general of KEK. I thank Hirotaka Sugawara. He made determinations at all critical phases of the K2K and T2K as director general of KEK. K2K confirmed the muon neutrino disappearance observed in atmospheric neutrino observation by Kamiokande. In addition, it showed that the disappearance rate has energy dependence as expected in neutrino oscillation assumption. T2K observed neutrino oscillation, where both initial and final flavor were identified. The oscillation amplitude and mass parameters are consistent with the standard “three generations scheme.” Using neutrino oscillation as a tool, further studies may solve the long-standing mystery of the three generations, and/or require correction of the standard view. I hope further studies and innovations by my young colleagues will lead to a big step forward in coming years. Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife and family for their patience.

Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K and T2K Collaboration

Ceremony Acceptance Video

Breakthrough Prize Symposium Talks

*Collaboration:

  • A Ikeda
  • Abigail V Waldron
  • Abraham Jacob
  • Achim Stahl
  • Adamo Gendotti
  • Agnieszka Zalewska
  • Akihiro Minamino
  • Akio Terashima
  • Akira Konaka
  • Akira Murakami
  • Akira Yamamoto
  • Akitaka Ariga
  • Alain Blondel
  • Alain Delbart
  • Alan Grant
  • Alan Muir
  • Alberto Marchionni
  • Aleksander Kilinski
  • Alessandro Bravar
  • Alessandro Curioni
  • Alex Clifton
  • Alex Hyndman
  • Alexander Korzenev
  • Alexander Himmel
  • Alexander Izmaylov
  • Alexander John Finch
  • Alexander Thorley
  • Alexei Khotjantsev
  • Alexis Haesler
  • Alfons Weber
  • Alysia Diane Marino
  • Ana Rodriguez
  • Ana-Maria Tornero-Lopez
  • André Gaudin
  • Andre Rubbia
  • Andrea Ferrero
  • Andrea Longhin
  • Andreas Badertscher
  • Andrew Missert
  • Andrew P Furmanski
  • Anezka Kolaceke
  • Anna Dabrowska
  • Anselmo Cervera
  • Anthony Hillairet
  • Antoine Cazes
  • Antonin Vacheret
  • Antonio Ereditato
  • Antony Carver
  • Antony Sarrat
  • Arnaud Robert
  • Asher C. Kaboth
  • Asmita Redij
  • Athanasios Hatzikoutelis
  • Atsuko Kondo Ichikawa
  • Atsumu Suzuki
  • Atsushi Okada
  • Atsushi Sakai
  • Atsushi Takeda
  • Ayanori Shima
  • Ben Morgan
  • Ben Smith
  • Benjamin Quilain
  • Benjamin Still
  • Bent Nielsen
  • Bernard Andrieu
  • Biagio Rossi
  • Blair Jamieson
  • Bockjoo Kim
  • Boris Popov
  • Brandon Hartfiel
  • Brian Kirby
  • Bruce E. Berger
  • Byoung Hwi Kang
  • C. Andrew Miller
  • Caio Licciardi
  • Callum Lister
  • Callum Wilkinson
  • Camillo Mariani
  • Carl Metelko
  • Carlos Chavez
  • Casey Bojechko
  • Chang Kee Jung
  • Chiaki Yanagisawa
  • Chie Matsumura
  • Chikaori Mitsuda
  • Chizue Ishihara
  • Choji Saji
  • Chong Oh Kim
  • Chris Densham
  • Christian Cavata
  • Christian Hansen
  • Christine Nielsen
  • Christophe Bronner
  • Christopher Hearty
  • Christopher Mauger
  • Christopher William Walter
  • Christos Touramanis
  • Ciro Pistillo
  • Clark McGrew
  • Claudia Strabel
  • Claudio Giganti
  • Costas Andreopoulos
  • Damian Goeldi
  • Damon Hansen
  • Dan Kerr
  • Daniel Cherdack
  • Daniel Grant Brook-Roberge
  • Daniel I Scully
  • Daniel Ruterbories
  • Danuta Kielczewska
  • Dario Autiero
  • David Casper
  • David Payne
  • David R Hadley
  • David Wark
  • Davide Sgalaberna
  • Dean Karlen
  • Denis Calvet
  • Dennis Terhorst
  • Dmitriy Beznosko
  • Dmitry Gudin
  • Dominic Brailsford
  • Donna Naples
  • E Seo
  • Edoardo Mazzucato
  • Edward Kearns
  • Edward L. Mathie
  • Eike Frank
  • Elder Sebastian Pinzon Guerra
  • Elzbieta Poplawska
  • Emilio Radicioni
  • Enrico Scantamburlo
  • Enrique Fernandez
  • Erez Reinherz-Aronis
  • Eric Daniel Zimmerman
  • Eric Sharkey
  • Erina Hirose
  • Ester Aliu
  • Eun-Ju Jeon
  • Ewa Rondio
  • Fabrice Retiere
  • Fahmida Khanam
  • Fanny Dufour
  • Fatih Bay
  • Federico Nova
  • Federico Sánchez
  • Flor de Maria Blaszczyk
  • Francesca Di Lodovico
  • François Moreau
  • Frank Berghaus
  • Fred Gannaway
  • Fumitaka Sato
  • Futoshi Nakata
  • Gabriel Vicent Jover-Manas
  • Gabriel Vidal-Sitjes
  • Gaku Mituka
  • Gary John Barker
  • Gavin Stuart Davies
  • Geoffrey F. Pearce
  • Georges Vasseur
  • Georgios Christodoulou
  • Gianfranca De Rosa
  • Gianmaria Collazuol
  • Gil Kogan
  • Giles Barr
  • Glenn D. Lopez
  • Gousei Kume
  • Greg Ward
  • Gustav Wikström
  • H So
  • Hajime Kubo
  • Han Il Jang
  • Hans-Gerd Berns
  • Haruki Nishino
  • Harumi Ishii
  • Helen M O'Keeffe
  • Henry Sobel
  • Hide K. Tanaka
  • Hidekazu Kakuno
  • Hideki Takeuchi
  • Hiroaki Aihara
  • Hirohisa A. Tanaka
  • Hirokatsu Ohhata
  • Hirokazu Ishino
  • Hirokazu Maesaka
  • Hiroki Sato
  • Hiromi Yokoyama
  • Hiroshi Kaji
  • Hiroshi Yamaoka
  • Hiroyuki Noumi
  • Hiroyuki Sekiya
  • Howard Budd
  • Hyeon Seo Park
  • Hyoung Chan Bhang
  • Hyun il Kim
  • I. S. Jeong
  • Iain Bertram
  • Iain Lamont
  • Ian James Taylor
  • Igor Kreslo
  • In Taek Lim
  • Issei Kato
  • Istvan Danko
  • Itaru Higuchi
  • Itsuo Nakano
  • Ivan Karpikov
  • Jacek Holeczek
  • Jaclyn D. Schwehr
  • Jacques Dumarchez
  • Jacques Mallet
  • Jacques Marteau
  • Jae Yool Kim
  • Jakub Żmuda
  • James Dobson
  • James Imber
  • Jan Kisiel
  • Jan T. Sobczyk
  • Janusz Marzec
  • Jaroslaw Nowak
  • Javier Caravaca Rodríguez
  • Jay Hyun Jo
  • Jean-Michel Levy
  • Jean-Michel Poutissou
  • Jeanine Adam
  • Jeanne R Wilson
  • Jee Seung Jang
  • Jelena Ilic
  • Jennifer Lynne Raaf
  • Jeremy Argyriades
  • Jerome Beucher
  • Jiae Kim
  • Jiayin Wang
  • Jim Hill
  • Jim Stone
  • Joan Catala
  • Joanna Zalipska
  • João Pedro A M de André
  • Jochen Steinmann
  • John F. Martin
  • John Learned
  • Jonathan D Perkin
  • Jonathan Insler
  • Jonathon Coleman
  • Jonghee Yoo
  • Jordan Myslik
  • Jordi Burguet-Castell
  • Joseph James Walding
  • Joshua Benjamin Albert
  • Joshua Hignight
  • Juan Jose Gomez-Cadenas
  • Jun Kameda
  • Jun Kubota
  • June Ho Choi
  • Jung Hyung Kim
  • Junya Hosaka
  • Justyna Lagoda
  • K Taki
  • K. O. Cho
  • Ka Pik Lee
  • Kai Martens
  • Karim Laihem
  • Karin Gilje
  • Katarzyna Kowalik
  • Kate Scholberg
  • Katsuki Hiraide
  • Katsuyu Kasami
  • Kazuaki Tashiro
  • Kazuhiko Hayashi
  • Kazuhiko Takenaka
  • Kazuhiro Tanaka
  • Kazuhiro Yamamoto
  • Kazuki Iyogi
  • Kazunori Nitta
  • Kazuo Nakayoshi
  • Kazuya Nakajima
  • Kazuya Tashiro
  • Kazuyoshi Kobayashi
  • Kei Ieki
  • Ken Sakashita
  • Ken-ichi Sasaki
  • Kendall Mahn
  • Kenichi Tanaka
  • Kenji Asakura
  • Kenji Hamano
  • Kenji Ishihara
  • Kentaro Mizouchi
  • Kento Suzuki
  • Kenzo Nakamura
  • Kevin Connolly
  • Kevin Scott McFarland
  • Kimihiro Okumura
  • Kimio Fujii
  • Kirsty Duffy
  • Kiyoshi Shiraishi
  • Ko Abe
  • Kodai Matsuoka
  • Koh Ueno
  • Konstantinos Mavrokoridis
  • Kouhei Hayashi
  • Krzysztof Zaremba
  • Kunio Koseki
  • Kunxian Huang
  • Kyung Kwang Joo
  • Laura Lee Kormos
  • Laura Monfregola
  • Laura Zambelli
  • Lawrence R. Sulak
  • Lee F Thompson
  • Leigh H Whitehead
  • Leon Pickard
  • Linda Cremonesi
  • Lisa Angelika Whitehead
  • Lorena Escudero
  • Lorenzo Magaletti
  • Lucio Ludovici
  • Luigi Salvatore Esposito
  • Lukas Flötotto
  • Lukas Koch
  • Luke Southwell
  • M Okumura
  • Magali Besnier
  • Magdalena Posiadala-Zezula
  • Mai Sekiguchi
  • Makoto Miura
  • Makoto Sakuda
  • Makoto Yoshida
  • Manobu M Tanaka
  • Marat Khabibullin
  • Marcela Batkiewicz
  • Marcello Messina
  • Marcin Ziembicki
  • Marco Laveder
  • Marco Zito
  • Maria Gabriella Catanesi
  • Maria Szeptycka
  • Marieke Navin
  • Mark A.M. Rayner
  • Mark Hartz
  • Mark McCarthy
  • Mark Raymond
  • Mark Scott
  • Mark Vagins
  • Mark Ward
  • Martin David Haigh
  • Martin Hierholzer
  • Martin Tzanov
  • Martti Nirkko
  • Masaharu Ieiri
  • Masahiro Kitamura
  • Masahiro Onchi
  • Masahiro Shibata
  • Masahisa Iida
  • Masaki Ishitsuka
  • Masako Iwasaki
  • Masaru Tada
  • Masashi Otani
  • Masashi Tanaka
  • Masashi Yokoyama
  • Masataka Iinuma
  • Masato Shiozawa
  • Masaya Hasegawa
  • Masayuki Nakahata
  • Matt Thorpe
  • Matthew Bass
  • Matthew Lawe
  • Matthew Malek
  • Matthew Murdoch
  • Matthew Noy
  • Matthew Reeves
  • Mauricio Barbi
  • Mauro Mezzetto
  • Maximilien Fechner
  • Megan Friend
  • Melanie Day
  • Melissa A George
  • Melody Ravonel
  • Michael Dziomba
  • Michael Joseph Wilking
  • Michael Macaire
  • Michael Roney
  • Michael Smy
  • Michail Lazos
  • Michal Dziewiecki
  • Michel Gonin
  • Michel Sorel
  • Michela Ieva
  • Michifumi Minakawa
  • Michiyo Takatsuki
  • Mike Litos
  • Minoru Takasaki
  • Mitsuhiro Kohama
  • Mohammed Siyad
  • Moohyun Ahn
  • Morgan O. Wascko
  • Motoyasu Ikeda
  • Myoung Youl Pac
  • Nagesh Kulkarni
  • Naho Tanimoto
  • Neil McCauley
  • Nicholas Craig Hastings
  • Nick Grant
  • Nick West
  • Nicolas Abgrall
  • Nikolai Yershov
  • Nobuhiro Kimura
  • Nobuyuki Sakurai
  • Norio Higashi
  • Norio Tamura
  • Norman Buchanan
  • Oleg Mineev
  • Oleg Perevozchikov
  • Olivier Drapier
  • Osamu Araoka
  • P. Trung Le
  • Panos Stamoulis
  • Patrick de Perio
  • Patrick Masliah
  • Pau Novella
  • Paul Fraser Harrison
  • Paul Rojas
  • Pawel Guzowski
  • Pawel Przewlocki
  • Per Jonsson
  • Peter Gumplinger
  • Peter J. Wanderer
  • Peter Kitching
  • Peter Neil Ratoff
  • Peter Paul
  • Peter Sinclair
  • Peter Sutcliffe
  • Philip Andrew Rodrigues
  • Phuong Dinh Tran
  • Pier Ferruccio Loverre
  • Piotr Mijakowski
  • Piotr Plonski
  • Pip Hamilton
  • R A Owen
  • R. Jeffrey Wilkes
  • Rajarshi Das
  • Raphael Schroeter
  • Raquel Castillo
  • Rebekah J Smith
  • Renee Poutissou
  • Reuben Phillip Litchfield
  • Richard Graham Calland
  • Richard Gran
  • Richard L Helmer
  • Robert A Johnson
  • Robert Henderson
  • Robert J. Wilson
  • Robert Kurjata
  • Robert Sulej
  • Roberto Sacco
  • Roger Wendell
  • Roman Tacik
  • Roy Preece
  • Ryan Terri
  • Ryohei Ashie
  • Ryosuke Ohta
  • Ryousuke Nambu
  • Sa Hoe Lim
  • Salasa Nawang
  • Samantha Short
  • Sampa Bhadra
  • Sandrine Emery-Schrenk
  • Sarah Joanne Ives
  • Satoru Yamada
  • Scott Davis
  • Scott Johnson
  • Scott M. Oser
  • Sebastien Murphy
  • Seiko Hirota
  • Seonho Choi
  • Serge Likhoded
  • Shamil Assylbekov
  • Shaomin Chen
  • Shigeki Aoki
  • Shigenobu Matsuno
  • Shigetaka Moriyama
  • Shimpei Tobayama
  • Shin-ya Echigo
  • Shinpei Yamamoto
  • Shirin Sabouri
  • Shoei Nakayama
  • Shogo Nishiyama
  • Shoji Suzuki
  • Shota Takahashi
  • Shuei Yamada
  • Shuhei Fukuda
  • Shunichi Mine
  • Shunsuke Noda
  • Shunsuke Ueda
  • Silvestro Di Luise
  • Silvia Borghi
  • Simon Hastings
  • Sofia Andringa
  • Soh Y. Suzuki
  • Soo Bong Kim
  • Sophie Berkman
  • Sosuke Horikawa
  • Spencer Giffin
  • Stanley Yen
  • Stefan Roth
  • Stefania Bordoni
  • Stephane T’Jampens
  • Stephen James Coleman
  • Stephen R Dennis
  • Steve Dytman
  • Steven Barry Boyd
  • Steven Manly
  • Steven W. Bentham
  • Sujeewa Kumaratunga
  • Susan L. Cartwright
  • Tae Ozaki
  • Taichi Morita
  • Taiki Iwashita
  • Takahiro Inagaki
  • Takahiro Hiraki
  • Takahiro Okamura
  • Takanobu Ishii
  • Takashi Kobayashi
  • Takashi Nakai
  • Takasumi Maruyama
  • Takato Ooyabu
  • Takatomi Yano
  • Takayuki Tomaru
  • Takeshi Nakadaira
  • Taku Ishida
  • Takuya Hasegawa
  • Tarek Akiri
  • Taritree Wongjirad
  • Tatsushi Nakamoto
  • Tatsuya Kikawa
  • Terry Duboyski
  • Tetsuro Sekiguchi
  • Thomas Alexandre Mueller
  • Thomas Dealtry
  • Thomas Kutter
  • Thomas Lindner
  • Thomas Maryon
  • Thomas McLachlan
  • Thorsten Lux
  • Tianlu Yuan
  • Tim Durkin
  • Timothy Christopher Nicholls
  • Tobias Martin Raufer
  • Tohru Sasaki
  • Tohru Takahashi
  • Tokio Nagasaki
  • Tomasz Golan
  • Tomasz Szeglowski
  • Tomasz Wachala
  • Tomiyoshi Haruyama
  • Tomoko Ariga
  • Tomoko Otaki
  • Tomonobu Tomura
  • Toru Ogitsu
  • Toru Okusawa
  • Toshifumi Tsukamoto
  • Toshio Hara
  • Toshio Namba
  • Toshiyuki Toshito
  • Tristan James Irvine
  • Tsuyoshi Nakaya
  • Ubaldo Dore
  • Valerio Pettinacci
  • Victor Matveev
  • Vincenzo Berardi
  • Vittorio Palladino
  • Vittorio Paolone
  • Vladimir Kravtsov
  • Vyacheslav Galymov
  • Walter Toki
  • Wei Wang
  • Weiming Qian
  • William Coleman
  • William Kropp
  • William Metcalf
  • Wojciech Oryszczak
  • Xavier Espinal
  • Yaroslav Shustrov
  • Yasuhiro Makida
  • Yasuhiro Nishimura
  • Yasuo Takeuchi
  • Yasutaka Kanazawa
  • Yasuyuki Tanaka
  • Yevgeniy Petrov
  • Yoji Kato
  • Yoshi Uchida
  • Yoshiaki Fujii
  • Yoshihiro Seiya
  • Yoshihiro Suzuki
  • Yoshihisa Obayashi
  • Yoshikazu Yamada
  • Yoshinari Hayato
  • Yoshinori Kurimoto
  • Yoshitaka Itow
  • Yoshitaka Kuno
  • Yoshiyuki Fukuda
  • You Moriguchi
  • Yousuke Suga
  • Yousuke Takubo
  • Yuichi Oyama
  • Yuki Kouzuma
  • Yuki Shimizu
  • Yumiko Takenaga
  • Yury Kudenko
  • Yusuke Koshio
  • Yusuke Suda
  • Yutaka Yamanoi
  • Yuzo Aoyama
  • Zachary Williamson

* The Prize recognizes living members of the experiments. We regret that prizes cannot be claimed on behalf of team members who have since passed away. All eligible winners of the 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics must claim their prize by October 1, 2016. Claims made after that date will not be accepted.