Laureates

Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K and T2K Collaboration

KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization

2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics

For the fundamental discovery and exploration of neutrino oscillations, revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the Standard Model of particle physics.

The Science

Sixty-five billion neutrinos pass through every square centimeter of your body every second. But since they are invisible and pass right through the Earth with scarcely any impacts, they are very hard to detect and study. Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K/T2K experiments in Japan confirmed that neutrinos beamed from a particle accelerator “oscillate”, or spontaneously transform into different types. This has major implications for our understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics and perhaps the origin of the Universe.

Comments

I thank my K2K and T2K collaborators for their exceptional work and dedication to the experiments. I thank the pioneering Japanese high-energy physicists for their hard efforts to realize a high-energy proton accelerator in 1979, and the KEK accelerator group for their innovative efforts to improve it two decades later. The successful operation of the new J-PARC accelerator was made possible by the innovations and dedication of my colleagues at J-PARC. I thank the late Yoji Totsuka, who made every possible effort to support both K2K and T2K from their very beginnings, as spokesperson of Super Kamiokande and later as director general of KEK. I thank Hirotaka Sugawara. He made determinations at all critical phases of the K2K and T2K as director general of KEK. K2K confirmed the muon neutrino disappearance observed in atmospheric neutrino observation by Kamiokande. In addition, it showed that the disappearance rate has energy dependence as expected in neutrino oscillation assumption. T2K observed neutrino oscillation, where both initial and final flavor were identified. The oscillation amplitude and mass parameters are consistent with the standard “three generations scheme.” Using neutrino oscillation as a tool, further studies may solve the long-standing mystery of the three generations, and/or require correction of the standard view. I hope further studies and innovations by my young colleagues will lead to a big step forward in coming years. Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife and family for their patience.

Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K and T2K Collaboration

Ceremony Acceptance Video

Breakthrough Prize Symposium Talks

*Collaboration:

  • Zachary Williamson
  • Yuzo Aoyama
  • Yutaka Yamanoi
  • Yusuke Suda
  • Yusuke Koshio
  • Yury Kudenko
  • Yumiko Takenaga
  • Yuki Shimizu
  • Yuki Kouzuma
  • Yuichi Oyama
  • Yousuke Takubo
  • Yousuke Suga
  • You Moriguchi
  • Yoshiyuki Fukuda
  • Yoshitaka Kuno
  • Yoshitaka Itow
  • Yoshinori Kurimoto
  • Yoshinari Hayato
  • Yoshikazu Yamada
  • Yoshihisa Obayashi
  • Yoshihiro Suzuki
  • Yoshihiro Seiya
  • Yoshiaki Fujii
  • Yoshi Uchida
  • Yoji Kato
  • Yevgeniy Petrov
  • Yasuyuki Tanaka
  • Yasutaka Kanazawa
  • Yasuo Takeuchi
  • Yasuhiro Nishimura
  • Yasuhiro Makida
  • Yaroslav Shustrov
  • Xavier Espinal
  • Wojciech Oryszczak
  • William Metcalf
  • William Kropp
  • William Coleman
  • Weiming Qian
  • Wei Wang
  • Walter Toki
  • Vyacheslav Galymov
  • Vladimir Kravtsov
  • Vittorio Paolone
  • Vittorio Palladino
  • Vincenzo Berardi
  • Victor Matveev
  • Valerio Pettinacci
  • Ubaldo Dore
  • Tsuyoshi Nakaya
  • Tristan James Irvine
  • Toshiyuki Toshito
  • Toshio Namba
  • Toshio Hara
  • Toshifumi Tsukamoto
  • Toru Okusawa
  • Toru Ogitsu
  • Tomonobu Tomura
  • Tomoko Otaki
  • Tomoko Ariga
  • Tomiyoshi Haruyama
  • Tomasz Wachala
  • Tomasz Szeglowski
  • Tomasz Golan
  • Tokio Nagasaki
  • Tohru Takahashi
  • Tohru Sasaki
  • Tobias Martin Raufer
  • Timothy Christopher Nicholls
  • Tim Durkin
  • Tianlu Yuan
  • Thorsten Lux
  • Thomas McLachlan
  • Thomas Maryon
  • Thomas Lindner
  • Thomas Kutter
  • Thomas Dealtry
  • Thomas Alexandre Mueller
  • Tetsuro Sekiguchi
  • Terry Duboyski
  • Tatsuya Kikawa
  • Tatsushi Nakamoto
  • Taritree Wongjirad
  • Tarek Akiri
  • Takuya Hasegawa
  • Taku Ishida
  • Takeshi Nakadaira
  • Takayuki Tomaru
  • Takatomi Yano
  • Takato Ooyabu
  • Takasumi Maruyama
  • Takashi Nakai
  • Takashi Kobayashi
  • Takanobu Ishii
  • Takahiro Okamura
  • Takahiro Hiraki
  • Takahiro Inagaki
  • Taiki Iwashita
  • Taichi Morita
  • Tae Ozaki
  • Susan L. Cartwright
  • Sujeewa Kumaratunga
  • Steven W. Bentham
  • Steven Manly
  • Steven Barry Boyd
  • Steve Dytman
  • Stephen R Dennis
  • Stephen James Coleman
  • Stephane T’Jampens
  • Stefania Bordoni
  • Stefan Roth
  • Stanley Yen
  • Spencer Giffin
  • Sosuke Horikawa
  • Sophie Berkman
  • Soo Bong Kim
  • Soh Y. Suzuki
  • Sofia Andringa
  • Simon Hastings
  • Silvia Borghi
  • Silvestro Di Luise
  • Shunsuke Ueda
  • Shunsuke Noda
  • Shunichi Mine
  • Shuhei Fukuda
  • Shuei Yamada
  • Shota Takahashi
  • Shoji Suzuki
  • Shogo Nishiyama
  • Shoei Nakayama
  • Shirin Sabouri
  • Shinpei Yamamoto
  • Shin-ya Echigo
  • Shimpei Tobayama
  • Shigetaka Moriyama
  • Shigenobu Matsuno
  • Shigeki Aoki
  • Shaomin Chen
  • Shamil Assylbekov
  • Serge Likhoded
  • Seonho Choi
  • Seiko Hirota
  • Sebastien Murphy
  • Scott M. Oser
  • Scott Johnson
  • Scott Davis
  • Satoru Yamada
  • Sarah Joanne Ives
  • Sandrine Emery-Schrenk
  • Sampa Bhadra
  • Samantha Short
  • Salasa Nawang
  • Sa Hoe Lim
  • Ryousuke Nambu
  • Ryosuke Ohta
  • Ryohei Ashie
  • Ryan Terri
  • Roy Preece
  • Roman Tacik
  • Roger Wendell
  • Roberto Sacco
  • Robert Sulej
  • Robert Kurjata
  • Robert J. Wilson
  • Robert Henderson
  • Robert A Johnson
  • Richard L Helmer
  • Richard Gran
  • Richard Graham Calland
  • Reuben Phillip Litchfield
  • Renee Poutissou
  • Rebekah J Smith
  • Raquel Castillo
  • Raphael Schroeter
  • Rajarshi Das
  • R. Jeffrey Wilkes
  • R A Owen
  • Pip Hamilton
  • Piotr Plonski
  • Piotr Mijakowski
  • Pier Ferruccio Loverre
  • Phuong Dinh Tran
  • Philip Andrew Rodrigues
  • Peter Sutcliffe
  • Peter Sinclair
  • Peter Paul
  • Peter Neil Ratoff
  • Peter Kitching
  • Peter J. Wanderer
  • Peter Gumplinger
  • Per Jonsson
  • Pawel Przewlocki
  • Pawel Guzowski
  • Paul Rojas
  • Paul Fraser Harrison
  • Pau Novella
  • Patrick Masliah
  • Patrick de Perio
  • Panos Stamoulis
  • P. Trung Le
  • Osamu Araoka
  • Olivier Drapier
  • Oleg Perevozchikov
  • Oleg Mineev
  • Norman Buchanan
  • Norio Tamura
  • Norio Higashi
  • Nobuyuki Sakurai
  • Nobuhiro Kimura
  • Nikolai Yershov
  • Nicolas Abgrall
  • Nick West
  • Nick Grant
  • Nicholas Craig Hastings
  • Neil McCauley
  • Naho Tanimoto
  • Nagesh Kulkarni
  • Myoung Youl Pac
  • Motoyasu Ikeda
  • Morgan O. Wascko
  • Moohyun Ahn
  • Mohammed Siyad
  • Mitsuhiro Kohama
  • Minoru Takasaki
  • Mike Litos
  • Michiyo Takatsuki
  • Michifumi Minakawa
  • Michela Ieva
  • Michel Sorel
  • Michel Gonin
  • Michal Dziewiecki
  • Michail Lazos
  • Michael Smy
  • Michael Roney
  • Michael Macaire
  • Michael Joseph Wilking
  • Michael Dziomba
  • Melody Ravonel
  • Melissa A George
  • Melanie Day
  • Megan Friend
  • Maximilien Fechner
  • Mauro Mezzetto
  • Mauricio Barbi
  • Matthew Reeves
  • Matthew Noy
  • Matthew Murdoch
  • Matthew Malek
  • Matthew Lawe
  • Matthew Bass
  • Matt Thorpe
  • Masayuki Nakahata
  • Masaya Hasegawa
  • Masato Shiozawa
  • Masataka Iinuma
  • Masashi Yokoyama
  • Masashi Tanaka
  • Masashi Otani
  • Masaru Tada
  • Masako Iwasaki
  • Masaki Ishitsuka
  • Masahisa Iida
  • Masahiro Shibata
  • Masahiro Onchi
  • Masahiro Kitamura
  • Masaharu Ieiri
  • Martti Nirkko
  • Martin Tzanov
  • Martin Hierholzer
  • Martin David Haigh
  • Mark Ward
  • Mark Vagins
  • Mark Scott
  • Mark Raymond
  • Mark McCarthy
  • Mark Hartz
  • Mark A.M. Rayner
  • Marieke Navin
  • Maria Szeptycka
  • Maria Gabriella Catanesi
  • Marco Zito
  • Marco Laveder
  • Marcin Ziembicki
  • Marcello Messina
  • Marcela Batkiewicz
  • Marat Khabibullin
  • Manobu M Tanaka
  • Makoto Yoshida
  • Makoto Sakuda
  • Makoto Miura
  • Mai Sekiguchi
  • Magdalena Posiadala-Zezula
  • Magali Besnier
  • M Okumura
  • Luke Southwell
  • Lukas Koch
  • Lukas Flötotto
  • Luigi Salvatore Esposito
  • Lucio Ludovici
  • Lorenzo Magaletti
  • Lorena Escudero
  • Lisa Angelika Whitehead
  • Linda Cremonesi
  • Leon Pickard
  • Leigh H Whitehead
  • Lee F Thompson
  • Lawrence R. Sulak
  • Laura Zambelli
  • Laura Monfregola
  • Laura Lee Kormos
  • Kyung Kwang Joo
  • Kunxian Huang
  • Kunio Koseki
  • Krzysztof Zaremba
  • Kouhei Hayashi
  • Konstantinos Mavrokoridis
  • Koh Ueno
  • Kodai Matsuoka
  • Ko Abe
  • Kiyoshi Shiraishi
  • Kirsty Duffy
  • Kimio Fujii
  • Kimihiro Okumura
  • Kevin Scott McFarland
  • Kevin Connolly
  • Kenzo Nakamura
  • Kento Suzuki
  • Kentaro Mizouchi
  • Kenji Ishihara
  • Kenji Hamano
  • Kenji Asakura
  • Kenichi Tanaka
  • Kendall Mahn
  • Ken-ichi Sasaki
  • Ken Sakashita
  • Kei Ieki
  • Kazuyoshi Kobayashi
  • Kazuya Tashiro
  • Kazuya Nakajima
  • Kazuo Nakayoshi
  • Kazunori Nitta
  • Kazuki Iyogi
  • Kazuhiro Yamamoto
  • Kazuhiro Tanaka
  • Kazuhiko Takenaka
  • Kazuhiko Hayashi
  • Kazuaki Tashiro
  • Katsuyu Kasami
  • Katsuki Hiraide
  • Kate Scholberg
  • Katarzyna Kowalik
  • Karin Gilje
  • Karim Laihem
  • Kai Martens
  • Ka Pik Lee
  • K. O. Cho
  • K Taki
  • Justyna Lagoda
  • Junya Hosaka
  • Jung Hyung Kim
  • June Ho Choi
  • Jun Kubota
  • Jun Kameda
  • Juan Jose Gomez-Cadenas
  • Joshua Hignight
  • Joshua Benjamin Albert
  • Joseph James Walding
  • Jordi Burguet-Castell
  • Jordan Myslik
  • Jonghee Yoo
  • Jonathon Coleman
  • Jonathan Insler
  • Jonathan D Perkin
  • John Learned
  • John F. Martin
  • Jochen Steinmann
  • João Pedro A M de André
  • Joanna Zalipska
  • Joan Catala
  • Jim Stone
  • Jim Hill
  • Jiayin Wang
  • Jiae Kim
  • Jerome Beucher
  • Jeremy Argyriades
  • Jennifer Lynne Raaf
  • Jelena Ilic
  • Jee Seung Jang
  • Jeanne R Wilson
  • Jeanine Adam
  • Jean-Michel Poutissou
  • Jean-Michel Levy
  • Jay Hyun Jo
  • Javier Caravaca Rodríguez
  • Jaroslaw Nowak
  • Janusz Marzec
  • Jan T. Sobczyk
  • Jan Kisiel
  • James Imber
  • James Dobson
  • Jakub Żmuda
  • Jae Yool Kim
  • Jacques Marteau
  • Jacques Mallet
  • Jacques Dumarchez
  • Jaclyn D. Schwehr
  • Jacek Holeczek
  • Ivan Karpikov
  • Itsuo Nakano
  • Itaru Higuchi
  • Istvan Danko
  • Issei Kato
  • In Taek Lim
  • Igor Kreslo
  • Ian James Taylor
  • Iain Lamont
  • Iain Bertram
  • I. S. Jeong
  • Hyun il Kim
  • Hyoung Chan Bhang
  • Hyeon Seo Park
  • Howard Budd
  • Hiroyuki Sekiya
  • Hiroyuki Noumi
  • Hiroshi Yamaoka
  • Hiroshi Kaji
  • Hiromi Yokoyama
  • Hiroki Sato
  • Hirokazu Maesaka
  • Hirokazu Ishino
  • Hirokatsu Ohhata
  • Hirohisa A. Tanaka
  • Hiroaki Aihara
  • Hideki Takeuchi
  • Hidekazu Kakuno
  • Hide K. Tanaka
  • Henry Sobel
  • Helen M O'Keeffe
  • Harumi Ishii
  • Haruki Nishino
  • Hans-Gerd Berns
  • Han Il Jang
  • Hajime Kubo
  • H So
  • Gustav Wikström
  • Greg Ward
  • Gousei Kume
  • Glenn D. Lopez
  • Giles Barr
  • Gil Kogan
  • Gianmaria Collazuol
  • Gianfranca De Rosa
  • Georgios Christodoulou
  • Georges Vasseur
  • Geoffrey F. Pearce
  • Gavin Stuart Davies
  • Gary John Barker
  • Gaku Mituka
  • Gabriel Vidal-Sitjes
  • Gabriel Vicent Jover-Manas
  • Futoshi Nakata
  • Fumitaka Sato
  • Fred Gannaway
  • Frank Berghaus
  • François Moreau
  • Francesca Di Lodovico
  • Flor de Maria Blaszczyk
  • Federico Sánchez
  • Federico Nova
  • Fatih Bay
  • Fanny Dufour
  • Fahmida Khanam
  • Fabrice Retiere
  • Ewa Rondio
  • Eun-Ju Jeon
  • Ester Aliu
  • Erina Hirose
  • Eric Sharkey
  • Eric Daniel Zimmerman
  • Erez Reinherz-Aronis
  • Enrique Fernandez
  • Enrico Scantamburlo
  • Emilio Radicioni
  • Elzbieta Poplawska
  • Elder Sebastian Pinzon Guerra
  • Eike Frank
  • Edward L. Mathie
  • Edward Kearns
  • Edoardo Mazzucato
  • E Seo
  • Donna Naples
  • Dominic Brailsford
  • Dmitry Gudin
  • Dmitriy Beznosko
  • Dennis Terhorst
  • Denis Calvet
  • Dean Karlen
  • Davide Sgalaberna
  • David Wark
  • David R Hadley
  • David Payne
  • David Casper
  • Dario Autiero
  • Danuta Kielczewska
  • Daniel Ruterbories
  • Daniel I Scully
  • Daniel Grant Brook-Roberge
  • Daniel Cherdack
  • Dan Kerr
  • Damon Hansen
  • Damian Goeldi
  • Costas Andreopoulos
  • Claudio Giganti
  • Claudia Strabel
  • Clark McGrew
  • Ciro Pistillo
  • Christos Touramanis
  • Christopher William Walter
  • Christopher Mauger
  • Christopher Hearty
  • Christophe Bronner
  • Christine Nielsen
  • Christian Hansen
  • Christian Cavata
  • Chris Densham
  • Chong Oh Kim
  • Choji Saji
  • Chizue Ishihara
  • Chikaori Mitsuda
  • Chie Matsumura
  • Chiaki Yanagisawa
  • Chang Kee Jung
  • Casey Bojechko
  • Carlos Chavez
  • Carl Metelko
  • Camillo Mariani
  • Callum Wilkinson
  • Callum Lister
  • Caio Licciardi
  • C. Andrew Miller
  • Byoung Hwi Kang
  • Bruce E. Berger
  • Brian Kirby
  • Brandon Hartfiel
  • Boris Popov
  • Bockjoo Kim
  • Blair Jamieson
  • Biagio Rossi
  • Bernard Andrieu
  • Bent Nielsen
  • Benjamin Still
  • Benjamin Quilain
  • Ben Smith
  • Ben Morgan
  • Ayanori Shima
  • Atsushi Takeda
  • Atsushi Sakai
  • Atsushi Okada
  • Atsumu Suzuki
  • Atsuko Kondo Ichikawa
  • Athanasios Hatzikoutelis
  • Asmita Redij
  • Asher C. Kaboth
  • Arnaud Robert
  • Antony Sarrat
  • Antony Carver
  • Antonio Ereditato
  • Antonin Vacheret
  • Antoine Cazes
  • Anthony Hillairet
  • Anselmo Cervera
  • Anna Dabrowska
  • Anezka Kolaceke
  • Andrew P Furmanski
  • Andrew Missert
  • Andreas Badertscher
  • Andrea Longhin
  • Andrea Ferrero
  • Andre Rubbia
  • André Gaudin
  • Ana-Maria Tornero-Lopez
  • Ana Rodriguez
  • Alysia Diane Marino
  • Alfons Weber
  • Alexis Haesler
  • Alexei Khotjantsev
  • Alexander Thorley
  • Alexander John Finch
  • Alexander Izmaylov
  • Alexander Himmel
  • Alexander Korzenev
  • Alex Hyndman
  • Alex Clifton
  • Alessandro Curioni
  • Alessandro Bravar
  • Aleksander Kilinski
  • Alberto Marchionni
  • Alan Muir
  • Alan Grant
  • Alain Delbart
  • Alain Blondel
  • Akitaka Ariga
  • Akira Yamamoto
  • Akira Murakami
  • Akira Konaka
  • Akio Terashima
  • Akihiro Minamino
  • Agnieszka Zalewska
  • Adamo Gendotti
  • Achim Stahl
  • Abraham Jacob
  • Abigail V Waldron
  • A Ikeda

* The Prize recognizes living members of the experiments. We regret that prizes cannot be claimed on behalf of team members who have since passed away. All eligible winners of the 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics must claim their prize by October 1, 2016. Claims made after that date will not be accepted.